The application of liminal;

WP_20131118_003 The use of liminal can be applied to a variety of subjects, from individuals to larger groups, up to and including whole societies or even entire civilizations. Although in actual reality liminal can be used for just about everything; time: dawn, sunset, twilight, new years or the cycle of the moon; religion: the trickster, Da’at or purgatory;  begins: shapeshifters, hybrids, workers or travellers(depending on the viewpoint.); places: crossroads, ariports, no mans land, borders, hotels, bridges, fords; folklore: Hiranyakashipu, Narasimha, Lleu, Mononoke, Namuci and Vitra; and popular culture: .hank(online world), Hamlet, The phantom tollbooth, for some examples.

Turner then coined the term Liminoid, meaning a break from society or part of play, whereas liminal is the aspect of society or something of social or religious ritual which luminoid allows you to escape.WP_20131118_034

Within the project I have procured some photographs to help depict the site I have chosen; The glass ceiling of the main reception building, and I have begun to experiment with the realiy of the glass; by zooming into a particular section of interest and capturing it, whilst trying to maintain  its connection to the liminal.

Although from another blog I found connected to this topic gave the quote that “It [liminal] doesn’t exist as an WP_20131118_004aesthetic conecpt or any distinguished phenomenon in the contemporary fine art.” which is not very encouraging, however J.K.Lyotard claims that “the artwork created (deliberatly or not) are probably best recognised for their aesthetics (or anti-aesthetics) of incompleteness.” (taken from The Postmodern Condition, 1979) Which indiactes that despite the lack of artwork that revolves around the concept of the liminal, the work that does appear, has a distinct style to it; so noticaSAM_1503ble and distinguished it is recognised as an indicator of the topic.











The Liminal:

The word liminal was created by Arnold von Genney, who published “Rites of passage” in 1908, which used the concept of criminality in the context of rituals in small-scale societies. The rituals being those that change status or the passage  of a significant amount of time. As quoted from “Rite  of passage” ; “Such rituals marking, helping or celebrating individual or collective passages through the cycle of life or of nature exist in every culture and share a specific three-fold sequential structure.” The three-fold rites are; Pre liminal (or rites of seperation); involving a metaphorical “death”, as the imitate is forced to leave something behind by breaking with previous practices and routines. Liminal (or transition rites); involving the “creation of tabular Rasa” through th  removal of previously taken for granted forms and limits. And finally Post liminal (or rites of incorporation); it is during this stage, the initiate is ‘re-incorporated into society with a new identity, as a “new” being. 

Victor Turns in 1963, is said  to have  then rediscovered th  importance of liminality. He proceeded to publish “The forest of symbols” in 1967 (Betwixt and Between: the liminal period in Rites of Passage’) It’s claimed that he wandered away from its narrow application and therefore blame him for the popular usage of today;  where it is valued far not  broadly, which some believe has undermined its significance. 

Turns made connections with tribal and non-tribal societies, understanding that criminality “served not only to identify the importance of in between periods but also to understand the human reactions to liminal experiences:the way liminality shaped personality, the sudden foregrounding of agency, and th  tying together of thought and experience.” 

It was explained to me that during the liminal stage, normally accepted differences between th  participants, such as social class are often described-emphasized or ignored. Otherwise described s a “communitas forming”, identified as a form of anti-structure of “the dark mirror of what humanity is.”  


New project:

We’ve begun a new project where the topic is Liminality. Which is described by the oxford dictionary firstly as “relating to a transitional or initial stage of process” and secondly as “occupying a position at, or on both sides of a boundary or threshold”.

The immediate response was to google search for any artists relating to the topic; a useful one was the article “looking for liminality in archetectural space” which is an article of immense value when looking for liminality within building structures and manifesting that as art; in various speculative forms. This in combination with the blog Terra Incognita: exploring human creativity, and the article “liminality in art“. This article is described as an “attempt in coining a new term in the Art Theory field.” (By itself.) The other website that was particularly intresting was Creative Becoming  and the article it provided was “Threshold concepts, liminality, uncertainty, identity...” which provided various other areas of intresting references.

Also, you should check out Radio 4’s Reith Lectures by Grayson Perry, which I should have remembered to bring up when I was listening to them. (You can still catch them online.)


Manifesto again:

For the second theorist/manifesto we must choose to study I picked the song “Everybody’s free (to wear sunscreen)” by Baz Luhmann.

Although the original lyrics come from the ‘commencement speech’ written by Mary Schmich in a Chicago Tribute as a collumn in 1997. The article is what Mary Schmich would use as graduation speech, giving advice, “which has no more reliable than my own[Mary Schmich] meandering experience”.

Th most obvious form of art to take from a song is typography; a quick google search lead to a mound of different styles that the style can take. Their are varying colour, shapes, style of letters, in different sizes.

Found objects:

After roaming the site of Storthes Hall we picked up some ‘found objects’, with which we intend to categorise and store in a homemade ‘archive’ of Huddersfield. This shall provide proof of our explorations, whilst also contributing to the project as a physical, three-dimensional piece of artwork. (In mimicry of Marcel Duchamp, and his ‘readymades’.)










Book binding:


-Pasting; Sheets get held together with a small bead of glue at the spine, however it can only be used for8 to 12 signatures. Although it does have the lowest cost.

-Saddle stitching:- Sheets are held together by two stitches or staples, meaning it is very cheap to create and reproduce. IT is more durable than pasting although it still holds very few pages like pasting.

-Spiral Binding:- Wire is wound in a spiral fashiion through holes punched in the pages edge, meaning it is suitable for larger page counts, whilst still having the abilty to lay flat when opened. However it is more expensive due to the wire.

-Perfect Binding:- The interior sheets bound to the cover with liquid adhesive, leaving an impressive apperance, although a little common due to paperback books, whilst still being able to hold large page counts, along with the extra space the spine will allow, although the spine does not allow for the book laying flat when opened. (although tehre is ‘perfect lay flat binding’ which allows the book to lay flat in this method, although it is far more expensive to reproduce.)

-Double-O-wire Binding:- This is a variation of spiral binding, however with two sets of coils in parallel. This is still suitable for larger page counts, and still lays flat when opened; although more expensive than single, although better in appearance than single spiral.

-GBC binding:- Pages held together by plastic comb, which is a little expensive; the cost of the comb, although it does hold more pages, and still lays flat when opened.

-Japanese binding:- The pages are held together by string around the edge; four holes that are all connected together with the same thread without going over the lines inequaly. It is inexpensive and more appealing in appearance.

-Smyth binding:- The signatures are held together individualy with a couple of stitches, then the signatures are all held together with a loop between the stitches. The technological method is fairly expensive, although by hand it takes a bit of time but works fairly well. The stitches are then hidden by glue which connects the cover to the pages, meaning that the signatures need to be sowed tightly. This is the method for hard-cover books.


– French folding:- The book is made by folding one page in 4, via folding in one direction and then to the other, with the open end the spine, and it is commonly created with the open short end at the top; to have a decorative inside within.

-Accordian foling:- This time folding one page into 3 or 5 equally in alternate directions.

-Double parallel brochure:- This uses one page in half, then fold it again in the same direction.

-Double Gate Fold:- Which uses one page folded into 4 with the last two end panels folded into the middle, a little shorter in width.

We plan to use japanese binding due to its simplicity, but still charming apperance, for our group book. Although I plan to delve into the binding methods and experiment fully with them all, to appropriately understand the project we have been given.

conclusion about which to create, why and simplicity of its creation and reproduction

New project:

The new topic we were given was “text and image”, we were requested to create something that could be made cheaply and simply as we would need multiple copies, and publish it.

They stressed the idea that “publish” is a loose term and can be applied to anything that is presented to the public in any manner, just as I am publishing this blog right now.

After forming groups; we decided to create an archive for Huddersfield, as in we would film areas we would visit and choose some ‘found objects’ to record and place in our collection, we also figured we would research into the history of Huddersfield, and track back any stories or legends the structures and buildings could present.

We started with Storthes Hall, our student accommodation, which was a mental asylum some years back, hence there are a few stories about the place, despite the fact that the original building that was used as the hospital was knocked down. Before the buildings now used as accommodation were built, which still hasn’t stopped some happenings from being recorded through stories and legends.

We intend to build an archive of materials found in the various places we explore around Huddersfield; although this will be awkward as found material will likely be the same sort of things; twigs, stones, etc However by building this archive we can comprise a short collection of realistic data of the different places, that is we can exploit the fact from fiction in the myths about the town, such as; Storthes hall being centred where was once an asylum. IMG_2884





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